- 1 Common nootropics
The term Nootropic was introduced in the early 1970s. Often referred to as cognitive enhancers or smart drugs, nootropics are compounds that are used to improve cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, concentration, memory, motivation, and problem solving. While all substances classified as nootropics demonstrate some form of mental enhancement, they all do so in unique ways, through different pathways and mechanisms in the body.[1,2]
The following list briefly covers the most common ingredients that appear in nootropic supplements. If you are interested in learning more, each ingredient has its own page providing further details.
Racetams are cognitive enhancers commonly used to treat a wide variety of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders.
This specific family of drugs branched off from the original "godfather" of nootropics, piracetam, which was discovered in the 1960's. Since then, the racetam family has expanded exponentially.
Nootropics were officially identified as a new class of drugs in 1972 when they were described as compounds that share the same essential characteristics as piracetam. Later, the definition of what constitutes a nootropic was changed. No longer was the compound necessarily required to resemble piracetam.[1,73]
Some of the popular members of the racetam family include:
It has been documented that phenylpiracetam has a broader range of application, and is more powerful overall, than piracetam.[75,76]
Nootropics are compounds that are used to improve cognitive functions. They're also known as "smart drugs."
- Alzheimer's disease
- Down syndrome
They have also been shown to exhibit positive effects in regards to memory and learning [77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84]
Noopept is an amino acid analogue that is very similar to piracetam, but is taken in far lower doses, and has shown to yield less side effects.
It increases the ability learn and remember information, and works by bettering your AMPA and NMDA Glutamatergic receptors, nerve growth factor (NGF), Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), and acetylcholine levels.
You can read more about it on our Noopept "mega-post" on the blog.
Bacopa monnieri is a perennial plant that has a rich history in Ayurvedic medicine, where it is categorized as an herb that "assists the mind, and enhances awareness," according to several sources.
In Ayurveda, the traditional Hindu medicinal system based on the idea of balance in bodily systems using herbs, diet, and yogic breathing, it is commonly known as Brahmi, is used to treat depression, insomnia, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Various studies support the cognitive enhancing effects demonstrated by Bacopa, especially memory and attention.[9,10,11]
Choline is an essential nutrient required for healthy brain function. It can be synthesized by the body in small amounts, and up until recently, scientists believed that the body could compensate for choline deficits through other nutrients.
It is now accepted that choline is essential and needs to be consumed through diet or supplementation.[12,13] A number of studies have also verified choline's cognitive benefits. [14,15]
DMAE, which is sometimes referred to as deanol, is a precursor to choline. It allows the brain to optimize the production of acetylcholine, a primary neurotransmitter involved in cognitive functions, such as learning and memory.[16,17,18] One study found DMAE useful in helping learning disabled children. A handful of other studies on rodents have shown that it has beneficial effects on memory.[20,21]
Much of the research surrounding the ginkgo biloba herb is based on a standardized extract derived from the ginkgo leaf.
Ginkgo biloba is one of the best selling herbal supplements is in Europe and the United States. Traditionally, it has been used to improve memory and treat blood disorders. These benefits have been confirmed, to some degree, in modern studies.
Some scientific literature claims that ginkgo biloba may have the potential to enhance mental function in younger people. There is even more evidence that it can provide some amount of relief to individuals suffering from Alzheimer's.[24,25,26]
Ginseng is a highly sought after and extremely expensive medicinal herb. The root is the part most commonly used. Ginseng must be cultivated for at least five years before being harvested. Because of this, top quality roots can sell for upwards of $10,000.
There are three different plants referred to as ginseng:
|Types of Ginseng||Latin Name||Location|
|Asian or Korean ginseng||Panax ginseng||Korea, Russia, northern China|
|American ginseng||Panax quinquefolius||United States|
|Siberian ginseng*||Eleutherococcus senticosus||N/A|
*Siberian ginseng is not actually related to ginseng at all, it is commonly known as eleuthero.
When panax ginseng is heat dried, it is considered red ginseng. When it is dried naturally, it is called white ginseng. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) both versions of panax have unique benefits.[27,28,29,30] American and panax ginseng are rich in a saponin called ginsenoside, which has been used effectively to protect against neuronal damage that impairs learning and memory.[31,32] A double blind, placebo-controlled study found that red panax ginseng was effective at improving cognitive function.
Huperzine A is a potent compound that belongs to the same class of chemicals as caffeine and cocaine, known as alkaloids. It is sold over the counter as a brain booster because of its potential for enhancing mental function. Studies have suggested that it may improve memory, and it is commonly used to treat Alzheimer's disease and other similar conditions.[34,35,36]
Idebenone, a synthetic analogue of CoQ10, is a powerful antioxidant that may protect against nerve damage in the central nervous system (CNS). This compound has been studied for its neuroprotective properties and has been considered effective against age-related cognitive disorders.[37-41]
Inositol, unofficially known as vitamin B8, is a naturally occuring isomer of glucose. High concentrations of inositol are found in heart and brain tissue. It plays important roles in a number of regulatory mechanisms in the body, especially in relation to muscle and nerve tissue. It's also key to proper functioning of cell membranes.
Inositol is present in food in three forms:
- Inositol hexaphosphate (phytic acid)
- A combination of inositol with phospholipids
Inositol is sometimes recommended for Alzheimer's disease, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit disorder (ADD), depression, and bipolar disorder.[42-45] Additionally, some studies on animals demonstrate possible memory related cognitive benefits.[46,47]
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)
NADH is considered to be a vitamin B3 co-enzyme. Research suggests that it might be effective at preserving, and even enhancing, cognitive function. It also appears to play major roles in longevity and several age-associated diseases, including neurodegenerative disease. Additionally, there is some evidence supporting its potentially protective effects against a broad range of cognitive disorders, including stroke and Alzheimer's disease.[51,52,53] Deficiency in NADH has been linked directly to the disease pellagra. There is also some proof that it may be helpful in treating chronic fatigue syndrome.
Phenibut is classified as a neuropsychotropic drug that offers nootropic effects. In Russia, it is widely used to relieve tension, anxiety, depression, post traumatic stress, stuttering, and fear. It has also been used to improve sleep in some patients.
The nootropic effects of phenibut have further been backed by animal studies, especially in regards to memory and learning.[57,58]
Phosphatidylserine belongs to the class of chemical compounds known as phospholipids. It's an essential component in all cells, specifically, the cell membrane (the "skin" of the cell). Research suggests that phosphatidylserine may be helpful in treating declining mental function and depression in the elderly.[59-63]
Also known as nicotinoyl-GABA, or pikamilon, picamilon has been shown to restore GABA receptors in rat brains.
Picamilon appears to have a high bioavailability, and it is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. One study on rats demonstrated potential benefits on short-term memory and learning. It is speculated that some of the benefits attributed to picamilon might be linked with its ability to increase blood supply to the brain.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)
PQQ, also known as methoxatin, was first recognized as an enzyme co-factor in methylotropic bacteria. There are some reported benefits from PQQ supplementation related to immune, antioxidant, and cognitive functions. PQQ has also been shown to increase nerve growth factor and protect against neurodegeneration.[70-72]
Schisandra is a fruiting vine native to eastern Asia. The small red berries produced by this infamous medicinal herb contain a lignan called schizandrin.[85,86] which has been fairly well studied for its possible mental health benefits. It's speculated that schizandrin's cognitive-enhancing potential could be due to its powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties.[87-92]
Vinpocetine is an alkaloid that provides very promising neuroprotective effects. It has been regarded as a full-fledged nootropic because of its ability to improve both short and long-term memory, and increases alertness. It is suspected that vinpocetine acts as a cognitive enhancer through a number of mechanisms. One of the most prominent is its ability to enhance blood flow to the brain.[94-98] One study even described it as "Viagra for the brain."
Adequate amounts of key vitamins and minerals are critical for supporting proper brain function, specifically cognition. Additionally, nutritional deficits may greatly impair mental performance. Vitamin K, in particular, has been gaining attention for it's potential role in brain health and cognition.[100,101]
Fish oil is rich in essential fatty acids (EFAs). Scientific literature acknowledges the fact that EFAs play an important role in brain health. The body cannot produce essential fatty acids on its own, they must be consumed through diet and/or supplementation.[102,103]
Adrafinil is considered a "pro-drug" to modafinil, which is only available by prescription. In other words, adrafinil is metabolized (converted by the body) into modafinil.
Both of these compounds are metabolized into modafinilic acid. Adrafinil is relatively understudied, but because both convert into the same active component, studies done on modafinil are commonly cited for adrafinil.[3,4]
These studies provide evidence supporting the pro-cognitive effects of modafinil and describe it as a psychostimulant. One study was able to demonstrate that modafinil, combined with cognitive training, greatly enhanced learning capability in healthy volunteers. Another study established that modafinil has definite cognitive-enhancing properties in young, healthy individuals. Despite being classified as a legal substance, in 2004, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) banned athletes from using adrafinil.
There is a wealth of evidence demonstrating ALCAR's positive effects on brain function and cognition. Many of these benefits have been associated with its neuroprotective, antioxidant qualities and its ability to enhance the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).[104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110]
Some nootropics, when taken at doses higher than the tolerable upper intake level (UL), can cause minor side effects, such as diarrhea, headache, nausea, and digestive discomfort. Even when there is no UL, there's still a chance that you may experience adverse effects.
You should know that not all nootropics have been studied adequately in regards to their long term safety. In order to minimize the chances of experiencing side effects, you should always use supplements responsibly, making sure you read the label and use the product as instructed. Also, talk to your health care provider before starting any new type of supplementation or fitness regimen.
Many of the studies done regarding the efficacy of nootropics were done with specific clinical applications in mind. While some studies were conducted using healthy volunteers, a bulk of them were on subjects that were suffering with cognitive disorders of various types and degrees. This makes it unclear as to how nootropics might affect the general population.
Building your supplement regimen around a sound diet is of the utmost importance. Studies validate the impact that diet has on cognitive function. Whole food sources should always be your go-to choice when available and substituting supplements for whole food is not advisable.
Where To Buy
Make PricePlow your number-one source for all things health and fitness. We make it easy and convenient to compare prices on your favorite supplements. Also, you will find honest, third-party reviews and free product guides that are packed with thoroughly researched and up-to-date information.
- Margineanu D.; Revue des Questions Scientifiques; "A Weird Concept with Unusual Fate: Nootropic Drug;" 2011
- Lanni C., et al.; Pharmacological Research; "Cognition enhancers between treating and doping the mind;" March 2008
- Milgram N., et al.; CNS Drug Reviews; "Adrafinil: A Novel Vigilance Promoting Agent;" 1999
- Dubey S., et al.; Indian Journal of Pharmacology; "A novel study of screening and confirmation of modafinil, adrafinil and their metabolite modafinilic acid under EI-GC-MS and ESI-LC-MS-MS ionization;" December 2009
- Schmitt KC., et al.; PloS One; "The Atypical Stimulant and Nootropic Modafinil Interacts with the Dopamine Transporter in a Different Manner than Classical Cocaine-Like Inhibitors;" October 2011
- Gileen J., et al.; European Neuropsychopharmacology: The Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology; "Modafinil combined with cognitive training is associated with improved learning in healthy volunteers - A randomised controlled trial;" January 2014
- Esposito R., et al.; PloS One; "Acute effects of modafinil on brain resting state networks in young healthy subjects;" July 2013
- NYU Langone Medical Center; "Brahmi;" Updated August 2013
- Stough C., et al.; Phytotherapy Research; "Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial;" December 2008
- Kongkeaw C., et al.; Journal of Ethnopharmacology; "Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on cognitive effects of Bacopa monnieri extract;" January 2014
- Stough C., et al.; Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences; "Examining the cognitive effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera (CDRI08: Keenmnd): a review of ten years of research at Swinburne University;" 2013
- Oregon State University;"Micronutrient Information Center: Choline;" Updated August 2009
- NYU Langone Medical Center; "Choline;" Updated August 2013
- Poly C., et al.; The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; "The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort;" December 2011
- Secades JJ., Frontera G.; "CDP-choline: pharmacological and clinical review;" October 1995
- NYU Langone Medical Center; "DMAE;" Updated August 2013
- Malanga G., et al.; Drug Metabolism Letters; "New insights on dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) features as a free radical scavenger;" March 2012
- Jope RS., Jenden DJ.; The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics; "Dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) metabolism in rat brain and its effect on acetylcholine synthesis;" December 1979
- Lewis JA., Young R.; Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics; "Deanol and methylphenidate in minimal brain dysfunction;" May 1975
- Blin O., et al.; Psychopharmacology; "Effects of dimethylaminoethanol pyroglutamate (DMAE p-Glu) against memory deficits induced by scopolamine: evidence from preclinical and clinical studies;" December 2009
- Levin ED., et al.; Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior;Effects of nicotinic dimethylaminoethyl esters on working memory performance of rats in the radial-arm maze;" June - July 1995
- University of Maryland Medical Center; "Gingko Biloba;" Updated May 2013
- NYU Langone Medical Center; "Enhancing Memory and Mental Function;" Updated August 2013
- National Institutes of Health; "Gingko;" Updated August 2013
- Sierpina V., et al.; American Family Physician; "Gingko Biloba;" September 2003
- Itil TM., et al.; Psychopharmacology Bulletin; "The pharmacological effects of ginkgo biloba, a plant extract, on the brain of dementia patients in comparison with tacrine;" 1998
- NYU Langone Medical Center; "Ginseng;" Updated August 2013
- University of Maryland Medical Center; "Asian Ginseng;" Updated May 2013
- University of Maryland Medical Center; "Siberian Ginseng;" Updated May 2013
- University of Maryland Medical Center; "American Ginseng;" Updated May 2013
- Wang Y., et al.; Pharmacology, biochemistry, and Behavior; "Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on chronic restraint stress induced learning and memory impairments in male mice;" February 2014
- He Q., et al.; Journal of the Chinese Medical Association; "Neuroprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against oxygen-glucose deprivation in cultured hippocampal neurons;" February 2014
- Yeo HB., et al.; Journal of Ginseng Research; "Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Cognitive and Motor Function: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Trial;" April 2012
- NYU Langone Medical Center; "Huperzine A;" Updated August 2013
- Wang R., et al.; Acta Pharmacologica Sinica; "Progress in studies of huperzine A, a natural cholinesterase inhibitor from Chinese herbal medicine;" January 2006
- Zhang RW., et al.; Acta Pharmacologica Sinica; "Drug evaluation of huperzine A in the treatment of senile memory disorders;" May 1991
- Thorne Research;Alternative Medicine Review; "Idebenone;" 2001
- Gillis JC., et al.; Drugs & Aging; "Idebenone. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic use in age-related cognitive disorders;" August 1994
- Nagaoka A., et al.; Drug Development Research; "Beneficial effects of idebenone on memory impairment in rats;" 1988
- Yamazaki N., et al.; Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics.;"Effects of idebenone on memory impairment induced in ischemic and embolization models of cerebrovascular disturbance in rats;" May 1989
- Ramulu K., et al.; Rasayan Journal of Chemistry (RJC); "IDENTIFICATION, ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATIONOF POTENTIAL DEGRADATION PRODUCT IN IDEBENONE DRUG SUBSTANCE;" October - December 2013
- Crouse Hospital; "Inositol (Vitamin B8)"
- Colodny L., Hoffman R.; Alternative Medicine Review; "Inositol - Clinical Applications for Exogenous Use;" 1998
- Levine J., et al.; The American Journal of Psychiatry.; "Double-blind, controlled trial of inositol treatment of depression;" May 1995
- Palatnik A., et al.; Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology; "Double-blind, controlled, crossover trial of inositol versus fluvoxamine for the treatment of panic disorder;" June 2001
- Lopez-Tellez J., et al.; The Journal of Neuroscience; "Prefrontal Inositol Triphosphate Is Molecular Correlate of Working Memory in Nonhuman Primates;" February 2010
- Shanmuga Priya S., et al.; International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives; "A Study on the Effects of Scyllo-Inositolon Learning and Memory in Senile Mice;" October 2013
- UC Davis; Chemwiki; "Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide"
- Rennie G., et al.; Nutritional Neuroscience; "Nicotinamide and neurocognitive function;" February 2014
- Lin S., Guarente L.; Current Opinion in Cell Biology; "Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a metabolic regulator oftranscription, longevity and disease;" 2003
- Sauve A.; The journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics; "NAD+ and Vitamin B3: From Metabolism to Therapies;" December 2007
- Demarin V., et al.; Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research; "Treatment of Alzheimer's disease with stabilized oral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide: a randomized, double-blind study;" 2004
- Green KN., et al.; The Journal of Neuroscience; "Nicotinamide restores cognition in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice via a mechanism involving sirtuin inhibition and selective reduction of Thr231-phosphotau;" November 2008
- Williams AC., et al.; Current gerontology and Geriatrics Research; "Nicotinamide, NAD(P)(H), and Methyl-Group Homeostasis Evolved and Became a Determinant of Ageing Diseases: Hypotheses and Lessons from Pellagra;" 2012
- Santaella ML., et al.; Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal; "Comparison of oral nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) versus conventional therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome;" June 2004
- Lapin I.; CNS Drug Reviews; "Phenibut (beta-phenyl-GABA): a tranquilizer and nootropic drug;" Winter 2001
- Shul'gina GI., Ziablitseva EA.; Annals of the Russian Academy of Medical Science; "Effect of the GABA derivative phenibut on learning;" 2005
- Ostrovskaia RU., Trofimov SS.; Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine; "Nootropic properties of gamma-aminobutyric acid derivatives;" February 1984
- NYU Langone Medical Center; "Phosphatidylserine;" Updated August 2013
- Kataoka-Kato A., et al.; Journal of Pharmacological Sciences; "Enhanced learning of normal adult rodents by repeated oral administration of soybean transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine;" July 2005
- Gindin J., et al.; The Geriatric Institute for Education and Research, Kaplan Hospital, Rehovot, Israel; "THE EFFECT OF PLANT PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE ON AGE-ASSOCIATED MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AND MOOD IN THE FUNCTIONING ELDERLY;" 1993
- Crook TH., et al.; The Official Journal of the American Academy of Neurology; "Effects of phosphatidylserine in age associated memory impairment;" May 1991
- Kato-Kataoka A., et al.; Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition.; "Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints;" November 2010
- The National Center for Biotechnology Information; PubChem; "Nicotinoyl-GABA"
- Akopian VP., et al.; Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology; "Effect of nootropes on quantitative changes in the rat cerebral cortex GABA(A) receptor complexes under experimental hypokinesia conditions;" July 2010
- Dorofeev BF., Kholodov LE.; Farmakologiia I Toksikologiia; "Pikamilon pharmacokinetics in animals;" March-April 1991
- Voznesenskii AG., et al.; Farmakologiia I Toksikologiia; "Comparative study of the effect of picamilone and piracetam on learning in rats in a radial maze;" July-August 1989
- Mirzoian RS., et al; Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine; "Effect of pikamilon on the cortical blood supply and microcirculation in the pial arteriole system;" May 1989
- Rucker R., et al.; Alternative Medicine Review; "Potential physiological importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone;" September 2009
- Takatsu H., et al.; Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology; "Effect of vitamin E on learning and memory deficit in aged rats;" 2009
- Bishop A., et al.; Nutrition Reviews; "Pyrroloquinoline quinone: a novel vitamin?" October 1998
- Ohwada K., et al.; Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition; "Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) Prevents Cognitive Deficit Caused by Oxidative Stress in Rats;" January 2008
- Giurgea C.; Conditional Reflex; "The "nootropic" approach to the pharmacology of the integrative activity of the brain 1, 2;" April-June 1973
- Gouliaev AH., Senning A.; Brain research; "Piracetam and other structurally related nootropics;" May 1994
- Malykh AG., Sadaie MR.; Drugs; "Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders;" February 2010
- Bobkov I., et al.; Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine; "Pharmacological characteristics of a new phenyl analog of piracetam-4-phenylpiracetam;" April 1983
- Bhowmick Anindita A., et al.; International Journal of PharmaTech Research; "Analytical Method Development and Validation for Piracetam as Bulk and in Pharmaceutical Formulation;" January-March 2010
- Lam J., Graves B.; Inkblot: The Undergraduate Journal of Psychology; "Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: A Comparison of Racetam Compounds and Current Medication;" September 2013
- Santa Cruz Biotechnology;Material Safety Data Sheet; "Piracetam" November 2009
- Winblad B.; CNS Drug Reviews; "Piracetam: a review of pharmacological properties and clinical uses;" Summer 2005
- Wilsher C. et al.; Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology; "Piracetam and Dyslexia: Effects on Reading Tests;" August 1987
- Koliaki CC., et al.; CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics.; "Clinical efficacy of aniracetam, either as monotherapy or combined with cholinesterase inhibitors, in patients with cognitive impairment: a comparative open study;" April 2012
- Li JW., et al.; Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology.; "Protective effect of oxiracetam on traumatic brain injury in rats;" July 2013
- Mondadori C., et al.; Behavioural Brain Research; "The GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 36,742 and the nootropic oxiracetam facilitate the formation of long-term memory."; May 1996
- NYU Langone Medical Center; "Schisandra"; Updated August 2013
- Yang SH., et al.; Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture; "Schisandrin enhances dendrite outgrowth and synaptogenesis in primary cultured hippocampal neuron;" March 2011
- Hu D., et al.; Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.; "Schizandrin, an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis, ameliorates Aβ1-42-induced memory impairment in mice;" July 2012
- Giridharan W., et al.; Free Radical Research; "Prevention of scopolamine-induced memory deficits by schisandrin B, an antioxidant lignan from Schisandra chinensis in mice;" August 2011
- Hu D., et al.; Planta medica.; "Deoxyschizandrin isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis ameliorates Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced memory impairment in mice;" August 2012
- Xu X., et al.; Neuroscience Bulletin; "Schizandrin prevents dexamethasone-induced cognitive deficits;" October 2012
- Zeng KW., et al.; European Journal of Pharmacology; "Schisandrin B exerts anti-neuroinflammatory activity by inhibiting the Toll-like receptor 4-dependent MyD88/IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced microglia;" October 2012
- Egashira N., et al.; Phytotherapy Research; "Schizandrin reverses memory impairment in rats;" January 2008
- Thorne Research; Alternative Medicine Review; "Vinpocetine;" 2002
- Jha MK., et al.; International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research; "VINPOCETINE: A SMART DRUG AND A SMART NUTRIENT: A REVIEW;" October 2011
- Valikovics A., et al.; Ideggyogyaszati szemle.; "Study of the effects of vinpocetin on cognitive functions;" March 2012
- Valikovics A.; Ideggyogyaszati szemle; "Investigation of the effect of vinpocetine on cerebral blood flow and cognitive functions;" July 2007
- Szapary L., et al.; Ideggyogyaszati Szemle; "Vinpocetin in neurological diseases;" November 2012
- McDaniel MA., et al.; Nutrition; "Brain-specific" nutrients: a memory cure?" November-December 2003
- Drake V.; Linus Pauling Institute: Micronutrient Research for Optimum Health; "Micronutrients and Cognitive Function;" Updated July 2011
- Ferland G.; BioFactors; "Vitamin K, an emerging nutrient in brain function;" March-April 2012
- Ferland G.; Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis; "Vitamin K and brain function;" November 2013
- University of Maryland Medical Center; "Omega-3 fatty acids;" Updated May 2011
- Vinot N., et al.; PloS One; "Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate;" June 2011
- University of Maryland Medical Center; "Carnitine (L-carnitine);" Updated March 2011
- Owen L., Sunram-Lea S.; Nutrients.; "Metabolic agents that enhance ATP can improve cognitive functioning: a review of the evidence for glucose, oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and L-carnitine;" August 2011
- Smeland OB., et al.; Neurochemistry International; "Chronic acetyl-L-carnitine alters brain energy metabolism and increases noradrenaline and serotonin content in healthy mice;" July 2012
- Ribas GS., et al.; Gene.; "L-carnitine supplementation as a potential antioxidant therapy for inherited neurometabolic disorders;" January 2014
- Soczynska JK., et al.; Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs.; "Acetyl-L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid: possible neurotherapeutic agents for mood disorders?" June 2008
- Kidd PM.; Alternative Medicine Review; "A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction;" June 1999
- Onofrj M., et al.; Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics; "Acetyl-L-carnitine: from a biological curiosity to a drug for the peripheral nervous system and beyond;" August 2013
- Arnold VK., et al.; Journal of Attention Disorders.; "A 9-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-finding study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of modafinil as treatment for adults with ADHD;" February 2014
- NYU Langone Medical Center; "Ginkgo;" Updated August 2013
- Choi J., et al.; PLoS One.; "Ginseng for health care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials in Korean literature;" April 2013
- Becker C. et al.; Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology; "Pharmacokinetic evaluation of idebenone;" November 2010
- Kutz K. et al.; Journal of Neurology; "Pharmacokinetic properties and metabolism of idebenone;" March 2009
- Carlomagno G., Unfer V.; European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences; "Inositol safety: clinical evidences;" August 2011
- NYU Langone Medical Center; "Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide;" Updated August 2013
- Cuomo C., Gonzalez-Sanchez A.; New York State Office of Alcoholism And Substance Abuse Services; "OASAS Communicator;" November 2013
- Samokhvalov AV., et al.; BMJ; "Phenibut dependence;" February 2013
- Jorrisen BL., et al.; Nutritional Neuroscience.; "Safety of soy-derived phosphatidylserine in elderly people;" October 2002
- Koskiniemi M., et al.; Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry; "Piracetam relieves symptoms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: a multicentre, randomised, double blind, crossover study comparing the efficacy and safety of three dosages of oral piracetam with placebo;" March 1998
- Fedi M., et al.; The Journal of the American Medical Association; "Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Piracetam in the Treatment of Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy;" May 2001
- Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; "Schisandra;" Updated August 2011
- Gomez-Pinilla F.; Nutrition and Health; "Collaborative effects of diet and exercise on cognitive enhancement;" 2011