|Serving Size: 1 Capsule|
|Servings Per Container: 100|
|Amount Per Serving||% DV *|
* % Daily Value (DV) is based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower based on your calorie needs.
† Daily Value (DV) not established.
Cellulose and magnesium stearate (vegetable source). Capsule consists of gelatin.
Take 1 capsule, 1 or 2 times per day with a meal, or as directed by your qualified health care consultant.
Energy Metabolism At The Organ Level!
Improves blood flow to the brain
Augments the brain's rate of energy production
Speeds cerebral glucose utilization and helps to regulate the channels which control sodium and potassium utilization
Increases the brain's use of oxygen
Elevates the brain's levels of several neuro-transmitters responsible for memory
Powerful Support for Mental Functioning
Jarrow FORMULAS Vinpocetine is a derivative of the alkaloid tabersonine, which is extracted from voacanga seeds. Vinpocetine also can be derived from the related alkaloid vincamine, typically found in the flower Vinca minor L. (periwinkle) and present in a few other plants, such as and Crioceras longiflorus. In Europe, extracts of periwinkle have been employed as components of herbal preparations intended for consumption by the elderly and others concerned with nervousness and anxiety. Modern research indicates that Vinpocetine supports cerebral metabolism in part by increasing the brain's production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the most important source of readily accessible energy found in the body. The brain's utilization of both glucose (blood sugar) and oxygen is improved by Vinpocetine.
Of special interest not only to the elderly, but also to students is the fact that Vinpocetine increases the concentrations of several of the neurotransmitters which are critical for learning/memory formation, recall, focus and mood. Vinpocetine selectively improves blood flow in the arteries and capillaries in the head and neck areas. Blood flow and the utilization of oxygen and glucose is improved in other tissues in the head area as well, including the eyes and the structures important for hearing.
Age-Related Mental Decline
With advancing age, numerous factors may lead to declines in memory and cognition. The brain, as is true of every other organ in the body, is dependent upon sources of energy and oxygen and, at the same time, must be able to eliminate waste products. The decline in memory and mental acuity associated with aging reflects multiple factors.
The basic building blocks for important neurotransmitters are less available and less efficiently used.
Important hormonal elements decline drastically by the sixth decade of life.
The same deterioration of the vascular system which is involved in heart disease can affect the blood supply to the brain.
The body's ability to produce the basic energy unit which powers the metabolism, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), fails over time.
The very ability of the blood to carry and release oxygen is subject to decline.
The brain's capacity to metabolize glucose for energy goes down as we age.
Although the causes of mental decline and degenerative brain disorders can be diverse, these six areas are common to most forms of deterioration which affect the brain. Reduced synthesis of necessary neurotransmitters, decreased circulation and diminished cellular efficiency are the enemies of sound memory and mental clarity.
Neurotransmitters and Memory
Vinpocetine influences many areas of brain chemistry and brain functioning. With regard to the neurotransmitters, its impact is greatest upon the levels of noradrenaline, which is principally active in the neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) area of the brain. Other primary neurotransmitters are dopamine, acetylcholine and serotonin. Dopamine is involved in reward-seeking behavior and memory associated with spatial tasks. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter most responsible for memory. Serotonin, which regulates mood and sleep (it is a œbuilding block for melatonin), is important to memory by controlling anxiety and depression.
Locus coeruleus neurons decline in number with age, and this decline appears to strongly influence areas such as cognition and the processing of information. Studies using animals have demonstrated that Vinpocetine improves the rate of firing of the LC neurons. Support for cognition and awareness is one aspect of Vinpocetine's contribution to memory.
The edifice we call memory, however, depends upon many supporting pillars. Therefore, Vinpocetine's other contributions to brain function should not be overlooked. Improved cerebral blood flow is a benefit which this compound shares with other supplements associated with cognition and memory, such as ginkgo biloba.
Experiments with Vinpocetine indicate four main and biochemical actions:
- Selective enhancement of the brain circulation and oxygen utilization without significant alteration in parameters of systemic circulation.
- Increased tolerance of the brain toward inadequate levels of oxygen and reduced blood flow.
- Inhibitory effect on phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme.
- Improvement in flow properties of the blood and a reduction in platelet aggregation as a result of effects on PDE (Akopov SE, Gabrielian ES. Effects of aspirin, dipyridamole, nifedipine and cavinton which act on platelet aggregation induced by different aggregating agents alone and in combination. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;42(3):257-9).
These mechanisms of action suggest numerous possible benefits, many of which have been explored experimentally. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which 20 mg of Vinpocetine was given twice per day to subjects with long-term reduced circulation to the brain, the results were very wide-ranging. After 45 days, researchers found that subjects had greater mental alertness, reduced confusion, enhanced recall of recent events, diminished anxiety, less fatigue, and greater emotional stability.
Not Just for the Elderly
The majority of the over 100 clinical trials (totaling more than 20,000 individuals) which have been performed with Vinpocetine have involved elderly subjects. Most of these trials have focused upon Vinpocetine's impact upon memory However, it would be wrong to think that only those who are older can benefit from this supplement. Several studies using normal, healthy volunteers of average age have demonstrated that short-term memory can be enhanced even in these subjects and even under conditions of induced memory impairment. Such findings have implications for students and others who find themselves having to process and memorize large amounts of information over short periods of time.
Other Possible Uses
Reduced circulation in the head area can contribute to many difficulties. For instance, increased blood viscosity (stickiness and/or thickness) and increased membrane rigidity in red blood cells can lead to blood flow problems in the inner ear. This can have implications for hearing and balance.
Similarly, blood flow plays a major role in eye health. Excessive platelet clumping can impair blood supply through the microvessels which serve the retina as well as many parts of the brain. These vessels are sometimes large enough for only one blood cell to pass through at a time. Poor circulation can impair the health of the macula and it can influence the pressure inside the eye itself. Therefore, as in the case of the inner ear, supplementation with Vinpocetine is an avenue of support for proper circulation to maintain tissue health and integrity.
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